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Field Trip 6

Page history last edited by Ember 11 years, 6 months ago

 

Singleton-Matthews Farm

03/05/09

 


 

Index:

 

  1. Typhaceae, Cattail / Typha latifolia
  2. Cupressaceae, Bald Cypress / Taxodium distichum
  3. Salicaceae, White or Silver Poplar/ Populus alba
  4. Sapindaceae, Box Elder Maple / Acer negundo
  5. Sapindaceae, Silver Maple / Acer saccharinum
  6. Altingiaceae, American Sweetgum / Liquidamber styraciflua
  7. Salicaceae, Weeping Willow / Salix babylonica
  8. Leguminosae, Black Locust / Robina pseudoacacia
  9. Rosaceae, Pennsylvania Blackberry / Rubus pennsylvanicus
  10. Vitaceae Muscadine / Vitis rotundifolia
  11. Oriental Bittersweet / Celastrus orbiculatus
  12. Cornaceae, English Dogwood / Stiff Dogwood / Cornus foemina
  13. Sapindaceae, Red Maple / Acer rubrum
  14.  Tree of Heaven / Ailanthus altissima
  15.  Black Cherry Tree / Prunus serotina
  16.  American Persimmon / Diospyros virginiana
  17.  English Ivy / Hedera helix
  18.  Giant Cane, Canebrake / Arundinaria gigantean
  19.  Watercress / Nasturtium aquaticum / (N. officinale)
  20.  Snowbells, Snowdrop / Galanthus nivalis
  21.  Lesser Periwinkle / Vinca minor
  22.  Ostrich Fern / Matteuccia struthiopteris
  23.  American Sycamore / Platanus occidentalis

 

Cattail / Common Cattail

Poales > Typhaceae > Typha latifolia

  • FIlters and absorbs pollutants from water; bioregulator.
    • Although, was part of Native Americans diet in Winter when food was scarce. 
  • Aerenchima ~> Spongy, air-filled tissue which allows:
    • Exchange of gases between root and shoot
    • Buoyancy for leaves to float atop water surface
    • Oxygen exchange to take place; prevents plant from "drowning"

 

Bald Cypress

Pinales > Cupressaceae > Taxodium distichum

  •   Deciduous conifer; NOT an Evergreen
    • Leaves are whorled/spiral arrangement on branches
  • Must be planted in MD, way too North for natural climate (swamp, Southeastern USA)

 

Silver Poplar / White Poplar

Salicaceae > Populus alba

  • Identify by white bark; diamond-shaped marks are characteristic

 


 

Box Elder Maple

Sapindaceae > Acer negundo

  • Pinnately compound leaves with 3-7 leaflets
    • Whereas other maples have simple, palmately lobed leaves
  • Seed Type: paired samaras; which point straight down & are perpendicular to ground)
  • Riperian, near water
  • Fast-growing trunk; branches break off very easily
  • Fairly short-lived compared to other trees

 

Silver Maple

Sapindaceae > Acer saccharinum

  • Leaves have 3 main lobes; deep sinuses
    • Silver waxy sheen on underside of leaf (green on top)
  • Fast-growing trunk = branches break off very easily = brittle wood
  • Not a good tree to plant near homes, is commonly damaged in storms and branches fall on house

 


 

American Sweetgum

Saxifragales > Altingiaceae > Liquidamber styraciflua

  • Alternately arranged (maples are opposite)
  • - cork tissue of branches = "winged" 
  • - new twigs are red shoots from grey-brown trunk bark

 

Weeping Willow

Salicaceae > Salix babylonica

- deciduous tree, fast-growing & short lifespan

- narrow leaves in whorled arrangement, serrated edges

- flowers arranged in catkins


 

Black Locust

Fabaceae > Robina pseudoacacia

- Fabaceae = Bean family (~fava)

- short thorns on twigs are oppositely paired

- Fruit type: legume; 4-5 seeds in long narrow pod


 

Pennsylvania Blackberry

Rosaceae > Rubus pensilvanicus

- dark red cane/bramble with prickles

- compound leaves

- fruit type: aggregates of black druplets ("berry")


 

Muscadine

Vitaceae > Vitis rotundifolia

- grape vine; husk

- generally not compatible with other Vitis spp.; and hybrids usually sterile

- Dr. M used to swing on these as a kid


 

Oriental Bittersweet

Celastraceae > Celastrus orbiculatus

- 'orbiculatus' = refers to almost perfectly circular leaves

          - round, glossy leaves arranged alternately

- invasive plant introduced to US

- Fruit type = capsule; with arillate seeds

          - 'valves' (pods) are bright yellow with orange/red seed

          - characteristic of family = bright red, arille berries

          - vibrant color attracts birds?

- plant forms thickets or winds around trees/trunks

- thin, spindly vines can be twisted into wreaths


 

English Dogwood / Stiff Dogwood

Cornaceae > Cornus foemina 

- opposite branching; dogwood-type buds on branch tip

- Red twigs (different from other Cornus spp.)

- Bract = modified leaves resemble "dogwood flower"; actual flower is the center cluster


 

Red Maple

Sapindaceae > Acer rubrum

- red twig ends emerging form white-grey bark

- typically smaller than other forest trees; although early pioneers

- not restricted to (but dominates) "wet" sites

- teethed leaves have 3 shallow sinuses

          - Identifiable by dark scarlet foliage in Fall   

- Is able to produce maple syrup; but other Acer spp. are more commonly used

**Dead or wilted leaves are extremely toxic to horses; toxin critically damages RBCs carrying oxygen


 

Tree of Heaven

Sapindales > Simaroubaceae > Ailanthus altissima

- namesake = latin superlative for "hieght" & "tallest"

- growth form & leaves resemble Sumac

- invasive asian tree

- large, pinnately compound leaves

- stinky pith & wood, leaves smell like rotten peanut butter

- resprouts vigorously after being cut; hard to eradicate

          - regeneration = eternal = "heaven" ?

          - although a fast growing tree, it is short-lived (~50yrs) 

*Roots, leaves and bark are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a cure-all for many ailments.


 

Black Cherry Tree

Rosaceae > Prunus serotina

- 2 glands a top of petiole


 

Unidentified Pine: (possible hybrid?)

- white, grey and brown patched bark (similar to Sycamore)

- 3 long, slender needles per fascicle

- rounded cone with spine-tipped edges (armored)

 


 

American Persimmon

Ebenaceae > Diospyros virginiana

- Ebenaceae = ebony family

- Square, knobby bark; tall straight tree trunks

- leaves are non-descript, plain elliptical (except for tiny black dots on surface)

- Persimmon = "fruit of the gods"

-Fruit type: globular Berry

     - round like a ping-pong ball

     - orange in color; with waxy glaucus sheen

     - Flesh is astringent while green; sweet when ripe/almost rotten

     - nutrient content high in Vitamin C


 

English Ivy

Araliaceae > Hedera helix

- Sister family to Carrots (Apiaceae)

- invasive vine; has green-yellow umbels rich in nectar

- Fruit type: dark black-purple berries; ripen in winter

     - somewhat poisonous to humans; birds disperse seeds


 

Giant Cane / Canebrake

Poaceae > Arundinaria gigantea

- part of grass family; is a "woody" grass

- Only native bamboo to North America; commonly found in river lowlands

- fan-like cluster of leaves at top of new stems = "top knot"

- Simultaneous synchronized mass flowering, pollination and death occurs every 120 years for large populations


 

Watercress

Brassicaceae > Nasturtium aquaticum / (N. officinale)

  •  semi-aquatic, perennial plant
  •  hollow stems float on surface; leaves are pinnately compound
  • Is edible, has peppery flavor
    • not recommended to eat, as it may contain microorganisms from water

One of the main ingredients in V8 vegetable juice


 

Snowbells / Snowdrop

Amaryllidaceae > Galanthus nivalis

  • daffodil family; perennial herbaceous plant
  • first to bloom in late-winter / early spring
    • blooms from a bulb which forms two erect leaves and a flowering stalk ('scape')
  •  6 white teeples; 3 outer & 3 inner
    •  Corona (inner teeples) is marked by a green V-shaped edge
    • small white seed; distributed by ants

 

Lesser Periwinkle 

Apocynaceae > Vinca minor

  • Trailing shrub grows along ground; roots along stems form colonies
  • Opposite leaves are evergreen (year-round); narrow and hairless margins
  • 5-lobed corolla with a pair of follicles ( <~ fruit type)
  • Vinca major (Greater Periwinkle) is closely related; except it is larger all-round, and has broader leaves with hairy margins

 


 

Ostrich Fern

Onocleaceae > Matteuccia struthiopteris

  • Colony-forming fern; vertical fronds
    • Is tapered long at base & short at tip; resembles an ostrich feather
  • Spore-bearing fronds are brown (early spring); sterile fronds are green

 

American Sycamore

Platanaceae > Platanus occidentalis

  • Several seen around this site

 

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